WestStart CALSTART is a non-profit organization that supports and accelerates the growth of advanced transportation technologies among both public and private sectors.
The Hybrid Truck Users Forum (HTUF) is a national, multi-year, user-driven program that assists the commercialization of heavy-duty hybrid technologies. It is operated by Bill Van Amburg, senior vice president of CALSTART, and is supported by the U.S. Army's National Automotive Center (NAC) and the Hewlett Foundation.
HTUF Working Groups are targeted, user-driven teams made up of leaders from commercial and military fleets interested in using hybrid trucks in a specific application. The seven Working Groups are: Hybrid Utility Truck, Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck, Hybrid Refuse Truck, Hybrid Bus, Plug-In Task Force, Incentives, and Class 8 Over the Road/Regional Delivery.
Thirteen utility fleets that wanted to cut their dependence on foreign oil and combat global warming purchased and evaluated hybrid trucks through the help of WestStart CALSTART. Consider them early stalwarts or trailblazers of an unproven technology in medium- and heavy-duty trucks.
Business Fleet surveyed five participating Hybrid Truck Users Forum (HTUF) fleet managers to learn how they have benefited from implementing hybrid trucks for their specific application. These were the results.
Director, Fleet Services
Company: Florida Power & Light
Fleet Size: 3,500
Number of Hybrid Trucks in Service: 20
FP&L's hybrids are primarily 27,000-lb. GVWR service trucks made by Azure Dynamics and Ford with Eaton hybrid and Odyne plug-in hybrid units sitting on an International chassis. The fleet also has P-Series vans (UPS style).
FP&L was the first to put medium-duty hybrid trucks in service nearly two years ago. Survant, who heads HTUF's Hybrid Utility Truck Working Group, says his fleet's hybrid program has saved about 40 percent in fuel costs from January to June of this year.
Survant notes other benefits of the hybrid trucks include quietness of operation and cleanliness. The fleet's equipment operates around residential districts, hospital zones and other noise-sensitive areas.
Hybrid trucks are well suited for power take-off (PTO) applications. On a utility truck, the boom is the primary PTO operation. Other PTO-driven tools include winches, hydraulic pumps, lift gates and loading applications. During PTO applications, the truck's main power plant shuts off and the boom operates solely on stored battery energy.
FP&L received purchase help for its first three hybrid trucks from the Department of Defense through a 21st Century partnership operating in conjunction with HTUF and WestStart CALSTART. The fleet replaces about one-tenth of its equipment annually.
Depending on how the hybrid truck is equipped, there's a $30,000–$40,000 premium over its diesel counterpart, and it can be as much as $60,000 depending on customization, Survant says.
"When we did the business case for these trucks several years ago, fuel was about $2.50 a gallon," Survant says. "We felt it would take about eight years to pay off the upcharge for the hybrid trucks, but subsequent prices have reduced that down to less than four years," says Survant.
Hybrids require less maintenance than conventional diesel. The electric motor not only powers the PTO applications, it powers the truck while idling in traffic, so the engine doesn't work as hard or as often, extending the life of the truck's components.
Regenerative braking takes wear off the brake system, extending brake life.
Because maintenance cost is lowered, Survant targets reselling one of his trucks in this class in about 10 or 11 years, though the batteries may need to be replaced every six or seven years. He says extending the trucks' lifecycles to 12 or 14 years will save more money.
The electrification of truck features including air conditioning, power steering and power brakes will be another big step in making these trucks more commercially viable, Survant says. "It's not too difficult to envision the future where you have really efficient batteries and a very small powerplant burning very little petroleum."
Director of Transportation Services
Senior Project manager, Clean Air Transportation Dept.
Company: Pacific Gas & Electric
Fleet Size: 12,000
Number of Hybrid Trucks in Service: 3
PG&E's three hybrid trucks are equipped with service and bucket configurations, including a 26,000-lb. GVWR International and two 33,000-lb. GVWR Peterbilts. All three use the Eaton hybrid drive system.
The fleet is expecting delivery of two Dueco trucks with Odyne plug-in hybrid drive systems and two Terex units on an International platform. The Terex trucks are equipped with a battery pack system that drives an electric hydraulic pump, which runs the hydraulics and auxiliaries.
The fleet is expecting a preproduction version of a Ford F-550 Super Duty in a plug-in hybrid trouble truck configuration, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Eaton and Ford. "Those are our first-responder vehicles and will give us between 10 and 15 miles of dedicated electric range," Ornelas says.
PG&E is part of the original HTUF and one of 13 utilities that received 24 of the Eaton International hybrids as part of a preproduction test and field evaluation.
Quietness and Fuel Savings
The trucks' onboard battery packs drive the PTO and auxiliary loads. The vehicles are so quiet they can be utilized in noise-sensitive areas and perform work during normal working hours, when in the past it had to be done on overtime or weekends.
Ornelas says crews love the trucks because they're able to have normal conversations from the street to the bucket 40 feet off the ground.
The PG&E hybrids are realizing a 33-55 percent improvement in fuel economy, or about one gallon per hour. Most driving is done in urban San Francisco, where the electric idling launch capabilities take full advantage of the stop-and-go traffic.
Spreading to Class 8
International, Freightliner and Peterbilt are developing not only the bucket platform but also UPS and FedEx-type hybrid vans for inner-city delivery, further capitalizing on hybrid's benefits in stop-and-go driving.
Manufacturers are even exploring non-traditional hybrid applications such as Class 8 trucks.
"Most people don't think hybridization of a Class 8 truck pays for itself, but there is a 3-5 percent fuel economy savings in those big trucks due to hybridization," Ornelas says. "A lot of work has been done with rectifying the air conditioning and heating units so truckers can shut their engines down and still be comfortable."
Ornelas believes the reason hybridization has taken so long to spread to heavier trucks, in part, has to do with the misconception that an over-the-road truck doesn't vary speed while on cruise control—yet that's where the hybrid shines. With an 80,000-lb. truck accelerating and decelerating up and down hills with the flow of traffic, a hybrid system can recapture regenerative braking and use the electric motor for mild acceleration.
"In the medium- and heavy-duty classes the hybrids have better paybacks than some of the other platforms," Ornelas says.
Paying a Premium
The premium of the hybrid truck over diesel can be $40,000–$80,000. Tax credits are available for hybrid truck purchases, some as high as $12,000 per truck. Meisel ran some numbers two years ago when diesel was $3.50 per gallon and paybacks were in the five- to six-year range.
To meet the 2007 emissions regulations, manufacturers installed new emissions controls technologies that added $3,000 to $13,000 to the overall cost. When the latest set of emissions regulations are instituted by 2010, Ornelas anticipates that price will increase further and impact performance, efficiency and maintenance, so the fleet is looking into other technologies to help offset some of the additional cost, including plug-in hybrids.
"For the future, there's no silver bullet," Meisel says. "I think we're going to be looking at a combination of hybrids, plug-in hybrids and some of the other alternative drive technologies that are going to all have a niche in meeting fleet requirements. We need to have a blended approach that addresses the capabilities of the unit with the needs of the business."
Director of Design and Technical Support, Fleet Services
Company: Duke Energy Corp.
Fleet Size: 8,000
Number of Hybrid Trucks in Service: 3
Savings Driven by Application
Allison found that hybrid savings were application driven. A larger percentage of savings occurs when drivers are off road working the truck and using hydraulic power, whereas in the past, the truck's internal combustion engine would provide hydraulic power while someone was in the bucket doing work. Here, the truck is off the majority of the time.
"Some trucks were gaining about 15 percent savings in fuel efficiency and others 30 percent. We found those trucks that had a lower savings percentage were not using the bucket as often as the others," Allison says.
Since then, the company has moved two of the trucks to do streetlight work where the bucket would be used more frequently.
From a fuel efficiency and maintenance standpoint, the trucks have delivered as promised, according to Allison. The hybrids didn't have maintenance issues that were different than the existing fleet. If the incremental cost can be driven down to the $30,000 range, Allison believes it would be a good economic proposition and the fleet would move toward hybrid trucks as its standard fleet vehicle.
In the right application with a $60,000 premium, fleets can recoup the extra cost of the hybrid truck within five to seven years, according to Allison.
Creating More Demand
Manufacturers need to sell a few thousand hybrid units per year to achieve better economies of scale, Allison says. Battery technology needs to improve and manufacturing costs must decrease for the trucks to become more commercially viable. Tax credits are available but difficult to obtain.
"They're becoming mainstream and folks need to understand they can run it everyday," Allison says.
Company: Alabama Power
Fleet Size: 2,000
Number of Hybrid Trucks in Service: 2
Alabama Power's fleet currently has two 33,000-lb. GVWR International trucks with Eaton hybrid powertrains in service.
The fleet became interested in hybrid trucks because of fuel economy considerations and the Energy Policy Act (EPA) mandated that fleets buy electric or alternative fuel vehicles.
A Regreening Process
The fleet has completed an 18-month field trial and has received its trucks back from being "regreened" by Eaton. Eaton upgraded the truck from research vehicles to commercial viability by taking the hybrid test components off the truck and replacing them with state-of-the-art commercially available hybrid components.
Alabama Power had the option to either buy the transmission or return it to Eaton. "We had a successful trial that exceeded our expectations so we purchased the hybrid package from Eaton," Kings says.
Results from the fleet's field test showed the hybrid trucks were 30 percent more fuel efficient. Similar to other tests, the operators appreciated the quietness of the boom operation.
Alabama Power's trucks idle as much as four hours per day, Kings says. One hour of operation at idle equals one gallon of fuel consumed for a typical heavy-duty truck, therefore the hybrids dramatically reduce fuel consumption.
Electrification of Auxiliaries
"There are still a lot of unknowns," Kings says. "The premium is about $50,000. Your usage and work profile greatly impacts how quickly your fuel savings will pay that back. We forecast recouping our premium in eight years, but as technology advances, the payback time should decrease."
Lead Engineer for
Company: Southern California Edison
Fleet Size: 6,000
Number of Hybrid Trucks in Service: 1
The Testing Process
Whereas it's hard to get uniform results from a controlled test in the field, lab tests ensure that each truck does exactly the same amount of work, Smith says.
After lab tests, Smith delivered the truck to the fleet and performed two fleet trials. One test was conducted at the company's Santa Monica, Calif. location, which has moderate weather for shorter driving distances. The the other was at its Redlands, Calif. service center, which is very hot during the summer, requires longer driving distances and severe operation. Smith was pleased with both results.
"In lab tests, I saw an almost 30 percent reduction in fuel economy," Smith says. "You can get more improvement in stop-and-go driving and less so with freeway driving. We try to place it in an operation with shorter drives and a lot of stationary boom time. If we were to drive this truck on the freeway all the time it wouldn't make much sense."
SCE is also working with EPRI and other utilities to develop a plug-in hybrid utility truck. This involves a much larger battery pack with the ability to charge off the utility grid while also offering more electric drive capabilities and electric air conditioning.
SCE has a prototype vehicle ready to test. It will receive the first vehicle by the end of the year for evaluation.
Smith says fleets will pay $20,000 to $30,000 more for a hybrid truck, so the present premium needs to drop to make hybrid trucks more commercially viable. BF